Climate Change Mitigation

With the publication of First IPCC Assessment Report, IPCC and second World Climate Conference called for global treaty on climate change. As a part of this, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature in 9th May, 1992 and the convention entered into force in 21st March 1994. The ultimate objective of the convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is “to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.” 


In order to achieve the objectives of the convention and to implement its provisions, the parties of the convention agreed on the guiding principles outlined in article 3 of the convention and committed to attain the objectives as outlined in article 4 of the convention.


Article 4 of the text of the Convention, within the framework of common but differentiated responsibilities and the specific nature of national priorities and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, sets out commitments for Parties and in particular Article 4.7 which determines the nature of the link between the commitments of one and the other parties, as it recognizes that developed countries must lead the fight against climate change, due to their historical responsibility in the genesis of the problem, and also should contribute to the fulfillment of the commitments assumed in developing countries as Parties of the Convention through the effective transfer of financial resources and technology, enabling the efforts of those in climate change mitigation.


UNEP defines CC mitigation as efforts to reduce or prevent emission of greenhouse gases. Mitigation can mean using new technologies and renewable energies, making older equipment more energy efficient, or changing management practices or consumer behavior. Similarly, the mitigative capacity is a country’s ability to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions or to enhance natural sinks, where ability refers to skills, competencies, fitness and proficiencies that a country has attained and depends on technology, institutions, wealth, equity, infrastructure and information. Mitigative capacity is rooted in a country’s sustainable development path.


The need for integrating mitigation approaches through a more effective route and to catalyze the mitigation activities led the parties at the third conference of parties held at Japan to adopt the Kyoto Protocol which came up with the market instruments to materialize the climate change mitigation approaches. Kyoto Protocol article 14 recognizes the Clean Development Mechanism and defines its purpose.


“The purpose of the clean development mechanism shall be to assist Parties not included in Annex I in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate objective of the Convention, and to assist Parties included in Annex I in achieving compliance with their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article 3.”


Project Status


1. Biogas Support Program - Nepal (BSP-Nepal) Activity-1

The project activity reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing conventionally used fuel sources for cooking, such as fuel wood and kerosene. The project includes a total of 9,692 small biogas digesters installed from the period 1 November 2003 to 15 June 2004. 


UNFCCC Ref No.: 0136

Applied Methodology: AMS I.E.

Estimated Annual Emission Reduction: 26,926 tCO2e

Status: The project is registered with UNFCCC. Six rounds of CERs have been issued for this project with cumulative CERs of 0.30 million tons of Carbon Dioxide equivalent.


2. Biogas Support Program - Nepal (BSP-Nepal) Activity-2

The project activity reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by displacing conventionally used fuel sources for cooking, such as fuel wood and kerosene. The project includes a total of 9,688 small biogas digesters installed from the period 16 June 2004 to 6 April 2005. 


UNFCCC Ref No.: 0139

Applied Methodology: AMS I.E. 

Estimated Annual Emission Reduction: 24,992 tCO2e

Status: The project is registered with UNFCCC. Five rounds of CERs have been issued for this project with cumulative CERs of 0.28 million tons of Carbon Dioxide equivalent.


3. Micro Hydro Promotion

The project activity is the installation and operation of 450 micro-hydro plants (MHPs) of sizes 5-500 kW in different parts of Nepal with a cumulative capacity of 14.97 MW. The project activity reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the replacement of diesel fuel used for lighting and milling.


UNFCCC Ref No.: 3653

Applied Methodology: AMS I.A 

Estimated Annual Emission Reduction: 40,535 tCO2e. 

Status: The project is registered with UNFCCC. First round of CERs amounting 66,345 tons Carbon Dioxide equivalent have been issued for this project activity. Second periodic verification is ongoing.


4. Biogas Support Program - Nepal Activity-3

The project activity is the promotion of household biogas digesters and biogas stoves located in various parts of Nepal to households with one or two cattle. The digesters enable households to displace firewood and fossil fuels with biogas from animal waste and human excreta. The generated biogas is feeding biogas cook stoves, and replaces the firewood used for cooking in wood stoves in the baseline scenario. The replacement of firewood that is non renewable biomass (NRB) is counted as emission reduction under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed project activity includes 20,254 digesters which were implemented between 7 April 2005 and 8 May 2006.


UNFCCC Ref No.: 5415

Applied Methodology: AMS I.E. 

Estimated Annual Emission Reduction: 56,919 tCO2e

Status: The project is registered with UNFCCC. Third round of CERs has been issued for this project with cumulative CERs of 0.16 million tons of Carbon Dioxide equivalent. 


5. Biogas Support Program - Nepal Activity-4

The project activity is the promotion of household biogas digesters and biogas stoves to households with one or two cattle located in Nepal. The digesters enable households to displace firewood and fossil fuels with biogas from animal waste and human excreta. The generated biogas will feed biogas cook stoves, and replace the firewood used for cooking in wood stoves in the baseline scenario. The replacement of firewood that is non renewable biomass (NRB) is counted as emission reduction under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed project activity includes 20,348 digesters which were implemented between 9 May 2006 and 21 June 2007.


UNFCCC Ref No.: 5416

Applied Methodology: AMS I.E. 

Estimated Annual Emission Reduction: 56,487 tCO2e

Status: The project is registered with UNFCCC. Second round of CERs has been issued for this project with cumulative CERs of 0.1 million tons of Carbon Dioxide equivalent. Third periodic verification is ongoing.


6. Nepal Biogas Support Program-PoA

The project activity is the installation of the household biogas digester. The target groups for the biogas digester are households with at least one head of cattle (generally cows or buffalos) who currently use non-renewable biomass (firewood) and/or fossil fuels (kerosene and/or LPG) for cooking purposes. The POA includes biogas digester installed from 22 June 2007. Under the POA approach, around 20,000 biogas digesters are expected to be installed in different districts under each component project activity (CPA). 


UNFCCC Ref No.: 9572

Applied Methodology: AMS I.E. 

Estimated Annual Emission Reduction per CPA: 61,510 tCO2e

Status: The PoA is registered with UNFCCC. The PoA now has seven CPAs with the one registered with the PoA and four more CPAs included in the PoA. First round of CERs amounting 0.14 million tons of Carbon Dioxide equivalent have been issued for this project activity.


7. Promotion of Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS)- Nepal

The project activity is dissemination of Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS) in different region of Nepal (Terai and High Hills). The users of the ICS are the households previously using inefficient and traditional firewood stoves. Each CDM project activity under the PoA will promote 22,000 Mud Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS) and Metallic Improved Cook Stove (MICS) in terai and high hill region.


UNFCCC Ref No.: 9902

Applied Methodology: AMS II.G. 

Estimated Annual Emission Reduction per CPA: 33,770 tCO2e

Status: The PoA is registered with UNFCCC CDM executive board effective from 27 March 2015.


8. Promotion of Improved Water Mills (IWM)- Nepal

The project activity is the installation of the Improved Water Mills (IWM) in the feasible districts of Nepal. This project will support installation of 8000 improved water mills in remote districts of Nepal starting from April 2011. The project will discourage installation of diesel mills for milling purpose. The improved water mill is a modified version of the traditional water mill which translates into a higher agro-processing capacity (milling capacity often doubles) and possibility of providing a diverse range of services like hulling, oil expelling, saw milling etc.


UNFCCC Ref No.: 9889

Applied Methodology: AMS I.B. 

Estimated Annual Emission Reduction per CPA: 11,022 tCO2e

Status: The PoA is registered with UNFCCC CDM executive board effective from 09 September 2015.


9. Promotion of Solar Home System (SHS)- Nepal

The programme for Promotion of Solar home system (SHS) envisages providing electricity with solar photo voltaic (PV) panel based system with a capacity of 10 watt peak or more. The component project activity under this programme is expected to install 125,000 Solar Home System in the non electrified rural households in the different parts of Nepal. The project will replace the kerosene used for the lighting in these rural household. 


Applied Methodology: AMS I.A. 

Estimated Annual Emission Reduction per CPA: 31,037 tCO2e

Status: The Design Documents (DDs) of the PoA is under preparation


Besides the projects/programs mentioned above, AEPC is also working on preparation of waste to energy carbon project.


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