Wind Energy Technology

Introduction

Air is a fluid like any other except that its particles are in gas form instead of liquid. When air moves quickly, in the form of wind, those particles are moving quickly. Motion means kinetic energy, which can be captured, just like the energy in moving water can be captured by the turbine in a hydroelectric dam. In the case of a wind-electric turbine, the turbine blades are designed to capture the kinetic energy in wind. The rest is nearly identical to a hydroelectric setup.

When the turbine blades capture wind energy and start moving, they spin a shaft that leads from the hub of the rotor to a generator. The generator turns that rotational energy into electricity. At its essence, generating electricity from the wind is all about transferring energy from one medium to another. 

Wind power all starts with the sun. When the sun heats up a certain area of land, the air around that land mass absorbs some of that heat. At a certain temperature, that hotter air begins to rise very quickly because a given volume of hot air is lighter than an equal volume of cooler air. Faster-moving (hotter) air particles exert more pressure than slower-moving particles, so it takes fewer of them to maintain the normal air pressure at a given elevation. When that lighter hot air suddenly rises, cooler air flows quickly in to fill the gap the hot air leaves behind. That air rushing in to fill the gap is wind. 

If we place an object like a rotor blade in the path of that wind, the wind will push on it, transferring some of its own energy of motion to the blade. This is how a wind turbine captures energy from the wind. The same thing happens with a sail boat. When moving air pushes on the barrier of the sail, it causes the boat to move. The wind has transferred its own energy of motion to the sailboat. 

Modern Wind-power Technology

i. Horizontal-axis

ii. Vertical-axis. 

Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are pretty rare. The only one currently in commercial production is the Darrieus turbine, which looks kind of like an egg beater. 

 

In a VAWT, the shaft is mounted on a vertical axis, perpendicular to the ground. VAWTs are always aligned with the wind, unlike their horizontal-axis counterparts, so there's no adjustment necessary when the wind direction changes; but a VAWT can't start moving all by itself. It needs a boost from its electrical system to get started. Instead of a tower, it typically uses guy wires for support, so the rotor elevation is lower. Lower elevation means slower wind due to ground interference, so VAWTs are generally less efficient than HAWTs. On the upside, all equipment is at ground level for easy installation and servicing; but that means a larger footprint for the turbine, which is a big negative in farming areas. VAWTs may be used for small-scale turbines and for pumping water in rural areas, but all commercially produced, utility-scale wind turbines are horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs). 

As implied by the name, the HAWT shaft is mounted horizontally, parallel to the ground. HAWTs need to constantly align themselves with the wind using a yaw-adjustment mechanism. The yaw system typically consists of electric motors and gearboxes that move the entire rotor left or right in small increments. The turbine's electronic controller reads the position of a wind vane device (either mechanical or electronic) and adjusts the position of the rotor to capture the most wind energy available. HAWTs use a tower to lift the turbine components to an optimum elevation for wind speed (and so the blades can clear the ground) and take up very little ground space since almost all of the components are up to 260 feet (80 meters) in the air.