Background, Strategies and Act
Article 51 (f) 3 of the constitution of Nepal has mentioned “ensuring reliable and affordable energy supply and proper utilization of energy by generation and development of renewable energy for the fulfilment of citizen’s basic needs.” There is a need for a sufficient and reliable energy supply to achieve this goal. Nepal has been facing some complex but mutually interrelated energy challenges, such as nearly one-fourth of the total population still being outside the reach of modern energy sources; a wide gap between energy demand and supply; supply vulnerability and reduction in foreign currency reserves due to existing dependence on energy import.
With economic, physical and social development, Nepal has aimed to achieve the sustainable development goals set by the United Nations and reach the level of medium-income countries by 2030 A.D. Among the sustainable development goals, the seventh goal is aimed to ensure the accessibility of affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all whereas the twelfth goal is aimed to promote sustainable and accountable production and use. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to establish a policy, legal and institutional framework that ensures the availability of affordable and reliable energy and its efficient use. The current fourteenth plan has also mentioned establishing policy and institutional framework to promote energy efficiency in Nepal. An integrated national energy policy incorporating energy efficiency and demand side management of energy as well as legal and institutional arrangements are yet to be established for promotion of energy efficiency
In order to promote sustainable supply of biomass energy available from animal waste, human excreta, fuelwood, agricultural residue, trees, forest residues including any biodegradable matters and to improve the efficient use of such biomass energy, the government of Nepal has already developed and adopted the Biomass Energy Strategy 2073.
To strengthen Energy Efficiency stream, Nepal Energy Efficiency Strategy (NEES), 2075 has been prepared for the promotion of energy efficiency and demand side management of energy, energy conservation, for the sustainable development of primarily modern and improved energy sources including hydropower, solar energy, wind energy, coal, natural gas, LPG and other petroleum products except biomass energy (which is also called traditional energy).
The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Bill is on approval process.